Meta-Learning of NAS for Few-shot Learning in Medical Image Applications



Deep learning methods have been successful in solving tasks in machine learning and have made breakthroughs in many sectors owing to their ability to automatically extract features from unstructured data. However, their performance relies on manual trial-and-error processes for selecting an appropriate network architecture, hyperparameters for training, and pre-/post-procedures. Even though it has been shown that network architecture plays a critical role in learning feature representation feature from data and the final performance, searching for the best network architecture is computationally intensive and heavily relies on researchers’ experience. Automated machine learning (AutoML) and its advanced techniques i.e. Neural Architecture Search (NAS) have been promoted to address those limitations. Not only in general computer vision tasks, but NAS has also motivated various applications in multiple areas including medical imaging. In medical imaging, NAS has significant progress in improving the accuracy of image classification, segmentation, reconstruction, and more. However, NAS requires the availability of large annotated data, considerable computation resources, and pre-defined tasks. To address such limitations, meta-learning has been adopted in the scenarios of few-shot learning and multiple tasks. In this book chapter, we first present a brief review of NAS by discussing well-known approaches in search space, search strategy, and evaluation strategy. We then introduce various NAS approaches in medical imaging with different applications such as classification, segmentation, detection, reconstruction, etc. Meta-learning in NAS for few-shot learning and multiple tasks is then explained. Finally, we describe several open problems in NAS.